Gaps and Dummies (Amsterdam University Press - Amsterdam Archaeological Studies)
In the course of the last century, however, social engineering also became a more specific, almost self-sufficient concept. As part of the modernist concept and as an expression of an optimistic faith in progress, there emerged, particularly in the Netherlands, an explicit discourse of social engineering 1 dealing with societal models to be realized the welfare state or forms of citizenship to be stimulated the emancipated citizen , which were also mirrored by large-scale physical social engineering projects.
As part of the modernist projects in the domain of urban design the Bijlmermeer and spatial planning the impoldering of the Zuiderzee, the Delta Plan , social engineering also became a more specific, almost self-sufficient concept. Social engineering became associated with a social-democratically oriented faith in government intervention and with a belief in a nature that could be controlled by man.
Over the last several decades, there as been an apparent abandonment of social engineering and its ideals. Cultural critics such as John Gray attacked the general faith in social engineering and progress as a disastrous regression to the utopias of the Enlightenment, degenerating into a destruction of culture and nature and providing fodder for totalitarian thinking. At the same time, affluent Western countries experienced the bankruptcy of the welfare state, and developments such as privatization, globalization, migration, international terrorism and climate change generated steadily increasing scepticism about the social engineering of the world.
The question is, however, whether the philosophy of social engineering had really disappeared or whether it is being used by neoliberal philosophy, using the procedures and instruments of the market and corporate management and targeting the individual. The model of the 'creative city', in which creativity and entrepreneurship are implanted in the urban fabric, seems a quintessential product of this 'neo-social engineering'. Other 'neo'- social engineering models might be the network society, the information society, the knowledge society, and of course the security state.
Neo-social engineering, after all, seems to tap the logic of the police and the secret services as well: the security state is emerging as the most current and complex societal ideal of the moment, dystopian and disturbing as it may be considered from the standpoint of the old philosophy of social engineering, yet at the same time based on the utopian desire that liberty and security might be compatible — a desire that is also part of the neoconservative ideology of the Americans, which illustrates, as John Gray emphasized, the current right-wing philosophy of social engineering.
And then there is that other current obsession in which a belief in social engineering plays a role, namely 'the citizen': according to the Dutch 'Assimilation Delta Plan', a demonstration of contemporary biopower, legal newcomers from outside the European Union are transformed into national citizens, while the European Commission programme 'Citizens for Europe' wants to turn national citizens into European citizens. And all these citizens have to be 'active' citizens — illegals and refugees excepted. Philosopher Lieven De Cauter, in his book The Capsular Civilization , emphasizes the impossibility of a non-social engineered society: 'It is not because total social engineering is dangerous that society should not be engineered, albeit relatively engineered.
If society were not engineerable, it would be a natural process, or an accidental coincidence, or destiny. No politics can be conducted on this basis, and there is not a single historian who cannot demonstrate that society is engineered, not created, and moreover by a complex process of decisions. In its contribution, BAVO rightly asks to what extent relative social engineering can lead to an actual repoliticization and not remain mired in an ethical appeal without consequence. Are there new, emancipatory forms of a philosophy of social engineering, in which agency is pre-eminent, that might provide a tactical, political or activist response to dominant neoliberal and neoconservative tendencies?
The media through which news and information are gathered, produced and exchanged have expanded significantly over the last several years. Weblogs, advanced search engines, virtual environments like Second Life, phenomena such as MySpace, Hyves, Flickr and YouTube are offering new tools, communication options, social networks and platforms for public debate. These are micromedia or grassroots media: media that are largely programmed, supplied and broadcast by the user — in contrast to conventional macromedia such as television and the printed press, which are more institutionally determined.
Andrew Keen, in The Cult of the Amateur , argues that the ascendance of the masses is a threat to the culture of authorities and experts, with mediocrity becoming the norm. His critique allows no room for considerations of the emancipating, democratizing or subversive effect of the informal media. He emphasizes that this process is born out of the interaction between the commercial media industry and the user, out of negotiations between the consumer and the producer.
The result is dynamic and capricious, has no clear outcome and is devoid of any set ideological programme. According to Jenkins, questions about the control of new internet platforms are particularly relevant. Open 13 features contributions by theorists and artists who reflect on the implications of the informal media for the public programme, conceived as the whole of public principles and requirements. Questions are raised about the conditions of our everyday media practices and about the opportunities for artists who work in a convergence culture.
Open 13 also includes specific attention to the changing position of conventional public media. Media scholar Oliver Marchart wonders how a radically democratic media policy can be conceived within the information society. The public dimension of television culture is also the focus of the special Hot Spot section compiled by Geert van de Wetering. Hot Spot, an initiative of the Dutch broadcasting organization VPRO , wants to investigate the implications and possibilities of the shifts in media production, distribution and consumption. How might programme makers benefit from an audience that participates in conceptualization and discussion?
Media philosopher Martijn de Waal assesses the democratic quotient of processes of valorization and systems of collective intelligence within the public sphere of Web 2. He sees blogging as a nihilist enterprise that undermines traditional mass media without stepping forward as an alternative. Media theorist Richard Grusin looks at the commotion around the Abu Ghraib photographs in light of our everyday media practices.
Art theorist Willem van Weelden interviews web epistemologist Richard Rogers on the politics of information and the web as a discrete knowledge culture. Artist and media researcher David Garcia sees, precisely within a commercial service industry in which media are omnipresent, opportunities for artists to contribute critical services and effective tools.
I have written a text about iconoclasm and iconolatry and the potential of Toppled as a shadow archive. Is the public made hollow if it exists only in the media? This intensification of the debate stems from a growing number of conflicts between public and private with respect to the ownership and control of knowledge and culture.
The activists in particular are concerned not merely with fighting copyrights or creating alternative licences and free spaces, but with realizing a social vision. Compared with the massive scale on which culture is being appropriated and exchanged today, due in no small part to digitization, this now looks more like a symbolic, intellectual and elitist affair, more like an artistic project than a social strategy. At the same time, there is a growing tendency to outsource elements of public culture to private parties patrons, corporations and the like who are then able to co-determine what will be released or made publicly accessible and what not.
It looks at new restrictions but also at new possibilities. The emphasis is on questions surrounding the privatization of intellectual property on the one hand, and on public space as creative practice on the other. Stephen Wright ponders what the growing privatization of knowledge means for art as a form of knowledge.
Brian Holmes also looks at the privatization of knowledge, but in relation to the collective, technologically determined space in which language and communication acquire meaning. McKenzie Wark, author of A Hacker Manifesto and Gamer Theory , describes the adventure of publishing his books in light of his own theory. Joost Smiers criticizes the current copyright system and leading alternatives like General Public License and Creative Commons.
Maxine Kopsa interviews British artist Chris Evans about his project Militant Bourgeois: An Existential Retreat , which focuses on the area of tension between patronage in particular the increasingly criticized Dutch system of government grants and the contemporary production of art. They invited a number of international firms and initiatives to present a vision based on their own practice. Neoliberal forces, such as privatization and commercialization, are torpedoing the idealized modern concepts of the public sphere, which is being increasingly defined, in terms of a practical project, by acute expectations concerning security and threat.
At the same time, public space is being claimed by groups and audiences such as illegal aliens, refugees and migrants, who are not accounted for, or only minimally, in official policy dealing with this space. Indeed, current thinking about the public sphere and publicness is no longer based on models of harmony in which consensus predominates. In the wake of these developments, the artistic space of art and its institutions is also repeatedly considered as a social or even political space, as a public issue.
The aesthetic and the political are played off against each other, and new questions are being formulated about autonomy and serviceability. This issue of Open examines how art and its institutions are reinventing, reformulating or re-legitimizing their public dimension and involvement. They cannot avoid re-examining what is public or not and why, who the audience is and how they want to relate to it. Artists Bik Van der Pol have produced a contribution about a spot in the Park of Friendship in Belgrade that was once the planned site of the Museum of Revolution. Jan Verwoert rejects the idea that artists and exhibition makers should be required to identify their audience.
To him, this reeks of an economic legitimization of culture, and he sees anonymity, on the contrary, as a pre-requisite to meaningful encounters in the cultural domain. BAVO calls on artists to link radical artistic activism with radical political activism. This led her to consider the relationship between art and society, as well as such concepts as community and nationalism. Max Bruinsma spoke with Jeroen Boomgaard, professor of Art in the Public Space at the Gerrit Rietveld Academie, and Tom van Gestel, artistic director of SKOR , about the role of art in a public space where public-private partnerships dominate and where public interests are mixed with economic and managerial interests.
But where does this space manifest itself today, that generally accessible domain where people meet one another and create public opinion and hence a form of political practice? In physical places like streets, squares and parks? In mass media such as newspapers and television? Or on the Internet, in chat rooms and newsgroups? The configuration of hybrid space is currently experiencing a powerful impetus thanks to wireless and mobile technologies like GSM , GPS , Wi-Fi and RFID , which are making not only the physical and the virtual but also the private and the public run into each other more and more.
And although we apparently deal with this flexibly in our daily lives, what is often left aside in debates on environmental planning or on social cohesion, or in cultural analyses, is the fact that the use of these wireless media is changing the constitution of public space.
Amsterdam University Press | Fruugo
Open 11 deals specifically with the implications that these mobile media have for public activities, and hence with the public dimensions of hybrid space. The issue has been produced in collaboration with guest editor Eric Kluitenberg, theorist, writer and organizer in the field of culture and technology. In his introductory essay he asks himself how a critical position is possible in a hybrid space that is characterized by invisible information technology.
New wireless, mobile media and hybrid space are being used experimentally and reflected upon on a small scale by a select company of artists, designers, architects and urban designers. On the basis of their projects for the Ruhr region in Germany, architects Frans Vogelaar and Elisabeth Sikiaridi provide an account in Soft Urbanism of how urbanism and architecture can be combined with information and communication networks.
The Droombeek locative media project is discussed separately by Arie Altena. The German researcher Marion Hamm reports on the Critical Mass bicycle tour in London in , a political demonstration against neoliberal globalization, which was experienced and prepared as much on the Internet, particularly by Indymedia, as in physical space. The conversation deals with the conditions of TV as a public medium and the changes in urban public space that Cornelis drew attention to in his early films such as Mens en Agglomeratie and De Straat On the invitation of Open , the design and art collective De Geuzen has contributed Mobiel Werk , which is partly concealed in the cover.
No discourse seems more hollow at the present moment than that about tolerance and freedom of expression: in Western culture, and not least the Dutch, enlightened ideas are scarcely capable any longer of generating meanings that apply and appeal to all of us. The formal and informal codes, rules, agreements and symbols that determine our freedoms and rights within that domain have ceased to function effectively.
One would be tempted to call some of the results cartoonish, were it not for the fact that they have entailed so many real deaths. Leaving cynicism and nihilism behind, the politico-philosophical concept of the public sphere needs to be articulated anew. The desire for this is projected not just onto politics, but also onto art as the most obvious domain of freedom of expression and symbol formation. Architecture and the city also present themselves as projection screens for experimental ideas about the communal, the heterogeneous and the autonomous.
Open 10 brings together analyses, stances and proposals of theoreticians, artists and designers who examine questions concerning contemporary symbolism and freedom of expression, artistic and otherwise, in relation to the Western notion of tolerance and forms of extremism. The failure of consensus thinking and acting finds expression at various levels. The radical nature of this proposition appears more stimulating in the present situation than the whiny and exhausted harmony model. Roemer van Toorn points to aesthetics as politics in the architecture of Wiel Arets and Rem Koolhaas.
Jeroen Boomgaard argues for a radical autonomy in the visual arts in order to free them from the disastrous planning processes of the market economy. Lex ter Braak opposes the call for art to design new symbols for the Netherlands. The column by The Buggers deals with repressive tolerance, while Gijs van Oenen reflects on the souring of Dutch tolerance in the new culture of assertion.
Martijn Engelbregt, known for controversial projects like Regoned and De Dienst , which push democratic instruments to their limits, produced a special contribution for Open. Jorinde Seijdel wrote about Koolhaas and Google in China in the light of contemporary notions of censorship.
Rem Koolhaas and Google are doing business in China — along with countless others, of course. But the new promised land is still a dictatorship in which the Communist Party exercises censorship on a large scale. Both Koolhaas and Google appear to be supporting and facilitating that censorship with their own particular projects. Censorship, it would seem, is no longer a categorical evil in the post-modern culture, but an integral force.
At the time of the first Brussels Biennial, Gielen organized a programme of lectures and debates in Brussels on 19 October , focussing on the art biennial as a global phenomenon. The debates looked at the boom in international art biennials — at the moment there are hundreds of biennials active all over the world. They also considered how the art biennial, which was originally an instrument within a politics of nation-states, is increasingly deployed for developing and marketing cities and regions. In order to compensate for this, biennials often put political issues onto their artistic agenda.
The recurring question is Brussels was: can biennials really represent an alternative political voice in these neo-political times? The philosophers Chantal Mouffe, Michael Hardt and Boris Groys and the curators Molly Nesbit, Charles Esche and Maria Hlavajova talked about the biennial as model, concept and instrument, and about the geopolitical, sociocultural and economic space in which it manifests itself.
Some of the lectures formed the basis for this special edition of Open which this time is appearing without its regular features. Some essays deal directly with the biennial, while other essays, such as those of Hardt and Mouffe, reveal different conditions and relationships within the social and political reality that the biennial is part of, putting forward proposals and posing questions that could be addressed by art and its scene.
There are also signs of a shared awareness that it cannot be regarded separately from the logic of neoliberal markets. In the context of Open as a series of anthologies in which the changing conditions of the public domain are examined from a cultural perspective, the subject of the biennial represents a possibility to look at the way in which this phenomenon and its legitimizing discourses relate to ideas about the city and urban politics, to new notions of publicness and to the implications of processes such as globalization and mediatization. The editors of Open are grateful to Pascal Gielen for his generous commitment as guest editor.
Last but not least, we are grateful to SKOR for allowing us the editorial freedom to develop Open as a series. Open 9 examines the role of sound in the public domain. After all, public space is manifest not only visually, but also, and to a considerable extent, acoustically: its public nature hinges on visibility as well as on audibility. All the same, the accent in cultural or social analyses of the public space still often rests on the visual.
Though this now seems largely utopian, it is clear that technology and new media amplify the auditory space, or add an extra dimension that has aesthetic, ethical and political implications. For this reason alone, involving the role of sound in reflections on public space and in its design is as necessary as taking the visual into account. In recent years there seems to have been an increasing sensitization for the auditory aspects of everyday life and the public domain.
In the visual arts, research is focused on the potency of sound as an aesthetic, meaningful or communicative element in relation to social or spatial environments. The medium of radio, which has proven itself capable of embracing digital culture, seems to be undergoing a veritable cultural revival, and is also being extensively explored artistically.
In Open 9 there are essays about the way in which sound and audio media play a role in urban public environments, and how they can propagate publicness or indeed sabotage it. Within the specific context of the city, Caroline Bassett examines the qualities of the auditory space created by mobile telephony, which make possible a new, mobile subjectivity.
Open 9 also features a range of international artists from different generations. They explore the possibilities and conditions for sound and public space in their work, as well as the limitations. Based on an interview, Brigitte van der Sande discusses the work of Moniek Toebosch, a performance and audio artist in whose work sound has played a critical role from the very start.
Artist Mark Bain discusses his critical intercourse with sound and space in a text about repressive and subversive sonic techniques. Jeanne van Heeswijk and Amy Plant designed a new sound medium, the Vibe Detector, as a means to gain an understanding of urban transformation processes. The device was tested in a neighbourhood in London. The disc also includes a special compilation of radio programmes that were made in autumn and broadcast during Radiodays , a project by participants in the 10th Curatorial Training Programme at De Appel in Amsterdam.
The dynamic of contemporary culture is dominated by the diktat of visibility. Visibility is associated with openness and communication, and is taken as prima facie evidence of the orderliness of society and its political makeup. Invisibility is in this logic the uncontrolled, the repellent or the repressed; but it is also that which still awaits disclosure.
From this viewpoint, the reality of the invisible plays no explicit part in the sociocultural and political debate, but the longing to reveal is all the stronger — to the point of explosiveness. Within the regime of visibility, the visual media generate an incessant stream of images while members of the public are also constantly visualizing their experiences. However, this plethora of images does not confirm the success of the ideology of visibility; on the contrary, it exposes the decline of that ideology.
There is a growing scepticism towards images, manifesting itself as public doubts about their authenticity and evidential status. These doubts can apparently only be countered by yet more images, without a point of satisfaction ever being reached. In this baffling situation, any visual message or social agenda is out of the question. What position does art take in this situation? Both are directly and explicitly occupied with issues relating to public space and the public domain, and both support taking a critical, defiant attitude in practice.
This is followed by a visual contribution from Pascale Gatzen, a designer operating on the borderline of fashion on art whose work places a critical accent on the treatment of fashion in photography. This issue of Open also documents a private discussion on the present-day legitimization of art school courses for art in public space, starting from the assumption that the Netherlands lacks a politically engaged practice or tradition regarding public space art; the participants were Jeanne van Heeswijk, Henk Slager, Jouke Kleerebezem and Jan van Grunsven, Henk Oosterling took the chair.
Kennedy or the Rodney King video tape. Now, however, digital media and the Internet seem to make an increasing intrusion of amateur images in the professional media inevitable. Or do they primarily demonstrate a public desire for images that almost eradicate the distance from events? In the new Open public space is seen as a component of the larger arena of public opinion-making and public life, an arena that can take multiple forms. Within this Open sees art not as an isolated phenomenon, but as a participant bearing joint responsibility, as well as in relation to other signification disciplines and developments.
This does not imply that Open is an interdisciplinary cahier, but it does imply that it includes room for themes, visions and viewpoints that sometimes criss-cross these various areas. Something like this seems urgent in a time when all notions of publicness are being reappraised. From this perspective Open 7 explores the current status of memory within art and the public domain.
The current culture seems equally dominated by safe-keeping and remembering as by discarding and forgetting. Cultural heritage is a topic of interest, as is the search for workable memorials and contemporary monuments. Technology guarantees unlimited storage space for information and data. The present pluriform and post-ideological public domain is not shored up by one single binding collective memory, but by countless material and immaterial memories. These short and long-term memories oppose or overlap one another. The current organization and experience of the public domain is defined in part by the tension that exists between individual and collective, between old and new, between autochthonous and allochthonous memories.
Within the public domain, memory its content, control or place has an impact on the way in which we view each other, ourselves, our past and our future. He who controls the memories and archives of a society controls time and space. It is precisely for this reason that keeping them accessible and sharing them is something that concerns everyone.
What is the role of art in this? Cor Wagenaar argues for the use of time as an instrument in the Belvedere policy, in which the cultural history serves as a source of inspiration in the spatial planning of the Netherlands. Artists Joke Robaard and Nico Dockx produced contributions for Open based on their own preoccupations with the archive. Corbis also owns a large number of photo archives.
Is Gates the saviour of the visual memory of the modern era, or a megalomaniac claiming a monopoly over this memory in an unprecedented way? What is the nature of his archive, and what are the implications for art and culture? This is the first issue of Open to come out in cahier form and to be published by NA i Publishers.
- Universal Abandon: The Politics of Postmodernism (Studies in Classical Philology).
- Geometric Measure Theory: A Beginners Guide, 3rd Edition.
- The e-book: it doesn’t smell or feel like a book.
- Media Archaeology and Intermedial Performance.
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The new Open strives more than in the past to achieve a balance between theory and direct contributions from actual practice. Open 6 is devoted to art, public space and security. A fearful culture is being postulated, in which, however, little is clear about the nature or the provenance of the threat. Is there really danger out there, socially, politically or economically speaking, or is the new fear coming out of a collective sense of being powerless to exert any influence on everyday reality, for instance?
Has the gap between citizens and government perhaps grown too wide as well? Or have the media, with their over-exposure of danger and their barrage of shocking images, become the primary authors of our fear? The issue of security seems to consist of a steadily condensing constellation of disparate as well as related socio-cultural, political and economic factors, which is increasingly coming to dominate the culture.
At all events, it is questionable whether the solution lies in the implementation of a society of control, or in a capsular society in which everything and everyone is suspect and we move from one protected enclave to the other: the rhetoric of security is not far removed from the rhetoric of danger. In any case, thorough and critical analyses of the current propositions on security seem to be in order. For the implications of thinking in terms of security for the public domain, for its organization, experience and use, are considerable.
Neither the perception of nor the relationship to the public as audience and the public as sphere, in the role they play in the theory and practice of art and public space, can remain untouched. Open 6 examines what lies at the root of the public yearning for security, of the cumulation of fear, and what new questions are being asked of and by artists, designers, theorists, clients and policy makers. Theoretical considerations and scenarios from art, architecture, philosophy and politics are reviewed, in an attempt to uncover something of the current security paradigm, or to propose alternative conceptual models.
Deep Time of the Theatre
Levin examines how artists working in the public space relate to the panoptic surveillance society. In the articles by architecture theorists Harm Tilman and Mark Wigley, security and architecture take centre stage — in the former primarily in a Dutch context and in the latter in direct connection with the World Trade Center buildings in New York.
In addition there are contributions more directly connected to concrete events, places or art projects, providing insight into the current aesthetics and ethics of security. Open 6 also includes the debut of a book section, which will be expanded in the following issue with more reviews and reports. In she published De waarde van de amateur [The Value of the Amateur] Fonds BKVB , Amsterdam , about the rise of the amateur in digital culture and the notion of amateurism in contemporary art and culture. With Open! According to Daniel Solove, professor of law at Washington University Law School, we need to reconsider the concept of privacy.
He appeals for a more pluralistic reading of the concept, to facilitate the recognition of problems pertaining to privacy. In the following article he discusses the ideas unfolded in the book. Daniel J. In he published Understanding Privacy ; see: www. The solution to the current crisis concerning privacy stretches beyond finding a new balance between private and public. While the current historical situation demands urgently a redefinition of authorship, the art world offers very little in terms of critique or alternative practice.
In order to avoid this, a new form of transparency is necessary, one that is horizontally organized and employs the newest means of communication. Researcher Felix Stalder analyses the loss of the key role of the concept of privacy. Privacy long secured the balance between the control of institutions and the autonomy of the citizen. Today, with institutions aiming more and more to provide customized services and the autonomy of both citizens and institutions changing, this role is disappearing, making the danger of an increase in control and power a realistic one.
To turn the tide, Stalder argues for a greater transparency of the back-end protocols, algorithms and procedures of the new, flexible bureaucracies. His research interests include: Free and Open Source Software, Free Culture, emancipatory cultural practices, theories of networks and the network society, of digital culture, of the transformation of space and its practices, as well as theories of subjectivity. His publications are available at www. The introduction of the data retention policy in the EU , resulting in digital doubles, has led to the emergence of grassroots protests centred on privacy and surveillance issues, especially in Germany.
One of these, AK Vorrat, is a network platform that makes intensive use of the Internet and is rooted in the liberal democratic tradition. In the following text, media researcher Oliver Leistert places data retention in a post-Fordist framework and highlights some of the shortcomings of the protest movement. Oliver Leistert studied philosophy, computer science and German literature. He was a research fellow at the Central European University in Budapest and at Sarai, an institute for new media and urbanity in Delhi. For this research he conducted a series of interviews in cities around the globe.
According to media researcher Martijn de Waal, it is time to rethink our ideas of privacy. The growing use of cellular networks is generating data that plays an important role in civil society projects. To be able to continue using such data in a meaningful and fair way, people must become aware of the fact that privacy is not only a question of either private or public, but includes many gradations in between. In this essay, media philosopher Martijn de Waal examines the implications of the rise of Web 2.
Who decides what is of value in the new media ecosystem and how do important processes take place? Martijn de Waal is a writer and researcher. He is cofounder of TheMobileCity. To what extent can artists and designers develop instruments that, using the newest digital technology, question how we will live our lives in the near future? In search of an answer, the editors of Open asked artist, architect and researcher Mark Shepard to write about his research project The Sentient City Survival Kit.
Mark Shepard is an artist, architect and researcher whose work explores the implications of mobile media and embedded information systems for architecture and urbanism. He is an assistant professor of architecture and media study at the State University of New York in Buffalo. In the s, he above all focused on the impact of the new media, by developing a media theory based on a fusion of an unorthodox form of neo-Marxism, psychoanalysis and communication theory. As a teacher, Berardi has a post at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera in Milan, where he teaches the social history of communication.
His analyses primarily address the psychopathological aspects of the new developments, and his more recent writings are straightforwardly sombre diagnoses of the network society. In the wake of the developments around WikiLeaks, the time is ripe to take a closer look at the current information landscape. Willem van Weelden, researcher and publicist specialized in media and culture, spoke with political sociologist Merijn Oudenampsen and media theorist Geert Lovink on how WikiLeaks can effect social and political change and contribute to making power more transparent.
Konrad Becker and Felix Stalder eds. Benda Hofmeyr ed. How can the web be understood as both a symptom and an expression of a public practice? According to what logic do search engines work and how do they influence the way we deal with knowledge, news and information? Web epistemology is a new research practice that regards the web as a separate knowledge culture and advocates giving an ear to what lies beyond all the din. How relevant can it continue to be from within its self-appointed ghetto?
The ambiguous way in which net critics have responded to the ideas and actions of Lawrence Lessig, front man of the Free Culture movement and one of the initiators of Creative Commons, makes this question all the more urgent, argues Willem van Weelden in this polemical essay. Janet Abrams en Peter Hall eds.
In rebus quoque apertis noscere possis, Si non advertas animum, proinde esse, quasi omni Tempore semotae fuerint, longeque remotae. Even in the case of things which are clearly visible, you know that if you do not turn your mind to them, it is as though they had never been there or were far away. The tradition of lending visibility to alternative modes of perception has always been a political one. We have argued that which it applies being the direction in which Case is assigned. Since Ps the UCC is a directional principle, the direction in in Dutch and English assign Case in the same direction, the UCC does not apply to the structure underlying 36b , since the matrix P is postpositional.
This accounts for the contrast between Dutch and After this digression on the distribution of gaps in Dutch and the English in this respect. The parasitic gap phenomenon may be illustrated by the example in Therefore, both variables according to the empty functional is in categories definition of a are empty categories in Chomsky , ch.
This qualification explains a further restriction on parasitic gaps, which is illustrated by This explains th, ungrammaticality of Which girl did you send a picture of The descriptive statement of a parasitic is as in An interesting aspect of the parasitic gap phenomenon is the relation between the parasitic gap and the antecedent subject to the bounding condition, i. This fact is is is that not what subjacency illustrated by the contrast between 61 and 6Zb. However, Kayne ,ch.
The books you Should read t before it becomes difficult to talk about e b. Noe oan they b' explained by th, EC? The ungrammaticality of th, b examples in 67 - 68 cannot be attributed to th, fact that th, parasitic gap is embedded in a subject, since cases like the one in 69 are grammatical. The contrasts between the a examples and the b examples of 67 and 68 are the contrast between the examples in 4 , reminiscent repeated here. Which actress do you think that John likes pictures of t b. The maximal g-projection of the governors of both gaps in the a examples is the matrix 5', which contains their antecedent.
This simple extension of the application of requirement does not explain the grammaticality the of g-projection Let us consider the tree structure of the relevant part of This of the connection requirement can be built into our Gap Condition in 13 very easily by requiring that the relation between an antecedent and its gaps forms a connected subtree. Both in terms of the Connectedness Condition and formulation of it as the Gap Condition, the a and b examples of 67 - 68 is our contrast explained revised between the straightforwardly, as can be seen in the tree representations in In this condition on the distribution of parasitic gaps.
The first reason has in to other do with the fact that there are two types of gaps in Dutch. As we showed in section 3, gaps inside PPs while other gaps take a necessarily [-R] take antecedent. Thus, there is no equivalent both to the parasitic, an are of English example like The reason for this is that the gap in the matrix clause would c-command the gap clause and hence function as its local in the antecedent.
Therefore, an example like 76 is ungrammatical, just as its English counterpart is. Since PPs in NPs follow the noun. Summarizing the discussion so far, we Gaps and Parasitic Gaps have seen two restrictions on parasitic gap constructions: a. It is easy to see that both requirements are fulfilled in constructions of the type exemplified in The second clause in this type a complement clause. There are two other conceivable is combinations of two clauses: a a matrix clause and a relative clause, and b matrix clause and an adjunct clause.
Both types allow a parasitic gaps in English. We shall now examine these two types in Dutch. Let us examine clauses embedded in NPs first. An example of this type of construction in English is given in We mentioned earlier that adjunct islands for extractions, both in EngliSh and in the proposal we made in 2. Consider So, the governor of S', the pp headed by maximal na, is gap, but of the projection not a g-projection.
In English, adjunct clauses are islands for extraction as well, as is illustrated in While in Dutch the g-projection of the governor of the gap breaks off at the level of the embedded S', off in English at the level of PP. The reason for is that unlike in Dutch, the S' is canonically this it breaks difference by the preposition in English. Therefore, the pp is a g-projection of the governor of the gap. The reason Why this governed g-projection continued is that the PP itself is not governed by V.
This difference allows us to make a be Vmax precise prediction. An English adjunct clause may contain a parasitic gap, if the adjunct PP is connected to the path of a real gap, but a Dutch adjunct clause should not be able to contain a parasitic gap, since the pp itself is not a g-projection. This prediction out to be correct, as is illustrated by the contrast turns between and their Dutch translations in Which book did you return!
A person that they spoke to t because they admired e c. The point where the in grammaticality tree g-projection structures breaks off boxed. It is clear that the boxed constituent connects up with of is the path of the real gap in the tree structure of 83a , but not in the tree structure of 84a.
Although the about prediction about the non-occurrence of parasitic gaps turns out to be correct in tensed adjunct clauses, parasitic gaps can be found in tenseless adjunct clauses, as has been observed by Dutch linguists since the introduction of the notion of and German parasitic gaps. It will be recalled, however, that we argued in section 3. As can be in the tree structure in 84a , it is the pp which stands in the seen the way of connecting the g-projection of the governor of the parasitic gap to the path of the real gap.
However, in the infinitival adjuncts, this pp structure would be absent, case i. Therefore, it would be counterproductive to provide an alternative analysis to account for these second gaps i f Gaps and Parasitic Gaps this alternative were non-consequential for the distribution of real gaps. In that case the theory would redundantly allow for an analysis of these second gaps as parasitic gaps as well.
Before we turn to a discussion of the surprising phenomenon that we announced at the beginning of this section, we want to discuss an issue that is relevant for the debate of the derivational status of parasitic gaps. In Chomsky , parasitic gaps are assumed to be empty categories at D-structure, their status of variables being determined at S-structure or LF by the functional definition of empty categories.
Their status of variable, then, does not result from movement of the content from the position of the parasitic gap to an A'-position, as is the case with normal variables, but rather from their local binding by an antecedent in an A'-position. More recently, this non-derivational approach to parasitic gaps has been called into question Chomsky, class lectures where he refers to work by Longobardi. Parasitic gap constructions appear to be sensitive to Complex Noun Phrase Constraint effects, something which is unexpected under the approach taken in Chomsky It is therefore proposed that parasitic gaps do result from movement to A'-position, thus creating an operator-variable relation independently.
It turns out that the latter approach conflicts with the situation found in Dutch. In section 2, we argued that extraction from sentential complements in Dutch is possible by successive cyclic movement only. Therefore, it is predicted by the derivational approach to parasitic gaps that a parasitic gap could be found in a complement clause within an adjunct clause. This situation is depicted in The t in COMP the results extraction from site of successive movement of the operator op. Under the non-derivational approach, there is no movement, hence no successive cyclic movement, and we g-projection of the governor of a therefore parasitic predict gap complement clause inside the adjunct breaks off this complement clause, as this clause itself governed.
Therefore, the derivational approach of the type exemplified in 90 non-derivational approach to adopted be here that contained at is the not predicts in level sentences whereas them to ungrammatical. The latter prediction turns out to be correct. The from the differences with peripheral were all shown to follow from independently existing differences between the two languages. Therefore, no language specific statements are needed either in the grammar of Dutch or the grammar of English to account for the phenomenon.
It was pointed out above, however, that Dutch appears to gaps which look like parasitic gaps, since they occur in have positions from which no extraction seems possible, but which do not be licensed by the presence of a real gap. Such gaps are seem to found in the examples in However, if no movement is involved, these gaps are bound by category in an A-position, which is generally excluded as a a consequence of the Binding Theory i. The English counterparts of the examples in 91 are indeed excluded: g2 a.
Thus, if it is assumed but that the antecedent of a parasitic gap may be in an A-position in Dutch, the sentence in 93 would be predicted to be grammatical, contrary to fact. It c-commands would be unattractive to assume that in Dutch, unlike in English, parasitic order to gaps are subject to some sort of locality requirement in account for the ungrammaticality of 93 , since, as we e.
In the case of R-gaps, it can be that a real gap, as well as a path demonstrated with which quite the parasitic gap can be connected, are required. The clearly path of the element er can have a number of distinct functions, some of which can coalesce in a given structure. We can distinguish between a locative er in as 94a , a presentative er which appears in sentences with indefinite subjects as in 94b , a prepositional er, of which several examples have already been given cf. An 96 a. The grammaticality of 95b shows that both functions can be in one occurrence of er.
Therefore, the ungrammaticality must be related to the fact that the contained in an adjunct clause. Given the prepositional in 96b must be parasitic. The grammaticality of that a parasitic R-gap in the adjunct clause and 96b prepositional R-gap is fact that the adjunct clause is an island in this case as well, the The main difference between 96b combined of 96c is is R-gap 96c indicates indeed possible. Therefore a path is created with which than the the path adjunct of the parasitic R-gap can connect.
In 96b , on the other hand, there no such path and consequently no connection R-gap phenomena thus illustrate quite can nicely be that made. Returning to the examples in 91 , we observe sentences the gap is contained clause. Therefore, these in an examples island pose that i. A similar analysis is independently would of to position lead 91a , us with antecedent proposed of NP in to t is Felix The antecedent die boeken is attached to the V-projection by Chomsky-adjunction, and is consequently in a non-argument position. Both gaps are canonically governed by their respective V-heads!
This S' is itself a g-projection of the governor of the parasitic gap. Both gaps bound by a c-commanding NP in a non-argument position gap c-commands the other. The relevant question at this point is how the real gap in 97 can be motivated. The gives us the position of t as the object according attached is the at a X'-principle higher level of base the first are neither existence principle of which position of the direct which modifiers are to structure cf. Jackendoff A further pertinent consideration is the adjacency requirement on Case Assignment proposed in Stowell lg If such adjacency is required for the verb to assign Case to its direct object, there must be an NP-position adjacent to the verb, as in In his discussion of the universality of the adjacency requirement Gaps and Parasitic Gaps on Case apparent Stowell Assignment, violations into develops account.
Thus, in with an object NP and an optional adverbial i, Dutch. Th' th, within constructions both pp, take to hypothesis orders are allowed: 98 a. However, Stowell assumes that the VP in Dutch is is with double headed, i. He also assumes that Case position under adjacency. As the example in VP, g8b shows, direct objects do not have to appear in VP-initial position. A variant of Stowell's analysis is presented in Koopman She does not assume that the Dutch VP is double headed, but nevertheless aerees with Stowell in assuming that Case is from VP-initial position under adjacency.
It will be evident that this with the same problems surface structure, as Stowell's: neither with adjacency the Case analysis is not meets met assigning at position initially in VP, nor with the Case assigning position at the end of VP. The main reason for Koopman to assume Case assignment VP-initial position is her hypothesis that Case is always in the same direction by the various categories in a from assigned particular language.
Since Dutch is mainly prepositional, this harmony would not exist if verbs in DutCh assigned Case from right Although such a cross-categorial harmony, at least as to far left. In our analysis, Case is assigned by the verb under government from right to left. With respect to adjacency, rather than being subject to a linear adjacency assignment is subject to strict government.
Case additional of linear complement NP. In English, this is not only true for object NPs but has a different effect on objects than on that, requirement, Under adjacency between the Case assigning category assume also for hypothesis can be illustrated by the tree structures for small clause complements in 99 , where 99a represents English and 99b Dutch This constructions of this type. In conclusion, then, it turns out that Stowell's adjacency requirement can be made to follow from government and binary branching, i.
The cases in which the direct object is not structurally adjacent to its Case assigner, as in g8a , are then accounted for optional movement. Since movement must be upgrading, this by has the linear effect of movement to the left. The movement leaves behind a Case marked trace, which is therefore a variable according to the inherent definition of empty categories. It should be noted that the NP-movement is determined by choice of pragmatic applying rather this leftward by strictly than syntactic considerations: definite NPs are more likely to be moved than indefinites, clitics are obligatorily moved.
It is interesting to note that the operation is formally identical to in EngliSh. Since the nature of branching is the Dutch, this movement will always have a This explains why types of NPs that Heavy-NP-Shift mirror rightward are likely image moving to be of effect. Let us now turn to Stowell's with apparent counterexamples to hypothesis is invoked to account second the for hypothesis adjacency cases surface structure in Italian, where the of object for dealing condition. Stowell adverb does not appear. This at proposes which met the either at S-structure itself, resulting in strict adjacency as in English, or at the level of the argument projection, the latter option the marked one chosen in Italian.
We shall not dwell on the of this proposal for Italian, but shall concentrate on application of this idea to account for cases of a being merits possible non-adjacency in Gaps and Parasitic Gaps Dutch. When this idea is applied to the examples in S-structure of each of the sentences might directly its surface manifestation, i. If this explanation is maintained, we would be at a loss with respect to the parasitic gap constructions in 91 , since under this proposal there is no need to assume the existence of a real gap which is required in order to make the connection with the g-projection of the governor of the parasitic gap.
In fact, the notion of argument projection, as it is used here, obscures the hierarchical relation between the adverbial, and the verb, just as it obscures the NP, linear the relation. Essentially, these relations appear to vanish into thin air, since, just as one can say that the required adjacency on Case Assignment is met at the level of argument projection, it might be argued that the local relation between verb and object Which follows X'-theory or Chomsky's sister condition subcategorizationl is defined at the level of argument The contrast between 91 and makes it from on strict projection.
Het is een sChande dat de arts [zonder It is a disgrace that the doctor without him behandeld te hebben] de patient vijftig gulden treated to have liet betalen the patient fifty guilders let pay 91 d. Evidence for the correctness of the hypothesis that NPs may be moved upward to the left Exceptional Case Marking in Dutch can constructions.
In a , from the S'-deletion Vmax, rather subject embedded clause by the matrix verb under government. This is expected, of course, since the adverbial pp is contained in the clause. Let us assume that the scope of an adverbial is to the clause within which it is contained. Nevertheless, it would be untenable to assume that embedded clause is transparent for the adverbials, since in c it can only scope be the interpretation the a embedded referent of of the embedded clause who is using binoculars. Ik zag met een verrekijker dat iemand het eiland aftuurde I saw with binoculars that someone the island along peered b.
Ik zag iemand met een verrekijker het eiland afturen I saw someone with binoculars the island along peer c. Ik zag iemand het eiland met een verrekijker afturen I saw someone the island with binoculors along peer How can we account for the ambiguity of b? It will be clear that no explanation is likely to emerge if the structures of b and c are as in a - b respectively. Ik zag [s iemand met een verrekijker het eiland afturen] b. Ik zag [s iemand het eiland met een verrekijker afturen] No appeal can be made to the opacity effect induced by the subject, since the adverbial is contained in the domain of the subject in both structures.
However, nothing prevents a movement rule in Dutch which is in its effect quite similar to raising to object, if the preceding account of possible non-adjacency of verb and object is correct. The ambiguity of b can be accounted for by the S-structure representations in In a , the adverbial is part of the embedded clause and can only be linked the embedded subject; in b , the embedded subject to a higher level than the adverbial, which is is now to attached part of the matrix clause, thus allowing linking to the matrix subject.
Ik zag [s iemand met een verrekijker het eiland afturen] iemand met een verrekijker [s t. Ik zag i afturenJ -, The non-ambiguity of c follows from the fact that, position of the adverb after the object, it must be given the contained in the embedded clause, since the object itself may not be moved to a position outside the embedded S, because of the opacity induced by the subject. A similar kind of argument can be based on relative scope of two adverbials.
In a simple sentence like niet not takes scope over met opzet deliberately , the , i. This would to explain if the only possible structure of were be hard a , since then we would expect the reading with niet taking scope over met opzet only, as in , with the necessary implication of John singing out of tune. The second reading would follow from b as Gaps and Parasitic Gaps an alternative structure for , on a par with a.
Ik hoorde Jao niet m,t opzet vals zingen I heard John "ot deliberately out of tune sing a. Ik hoorde [S Jao niet met opzet vals zingen] b. Ik hoorde Jan i niet [S t. In this reading both and met opzet take scope over the matriX clause. This reading is accounted for by the structure in c. I heard that John did not deliberately sing out of tune b. I didn't hear that John deliberately sang out of tune c.
I didn't hear deliberately that John sang out of tune It should be noted that a similar analysis is not available for English or VO languages in general. To illustrate this, let examine the tree structure in , configuration relevant for English which perception would verb represent us the constructions and ECM-constructions. There are two possibilities. First, landing site is available at D-structure, in which case be assigned a violate the theta-role. The structure furthermore violates the restriction of syntactic structures to binary branching, has been proposed recently in the literature This argumentation traditional is proposals of course the involving Kayne , argumentation Subject which ch.
Again, the landing cf. Chomsky , ch. The left is c , but apart from the only hierarchical effect raising, there is also a linear effect, i. This is precisely the effect of Heavy-NP-Shift, which we claimed earlier to be the mirror-image operation of the 'raising' or 'Light-NP-Shift' we claim to be operative in Dutch.
As is to expected, therefore, the result of Heavy-NP-Shift under circumstances yields grammatical reSUlts, as can be seen in be these This is exemplified in The same is illustrated in , where John is the matrix object controlling the embedded PRO subject. The relevance of , then, is that the adverb secretly cannot be linked to matrix subject position. Therefore, the structure representing cannot be as in ; cf.
This is precisely as predicted. Stowell , argues for the constituency of small clause complements by pointing out the impossibility of separating the subject of the small clause from its predicate by an intervening adverb. Relevant examples are given in This not restriction to is the a is linked matrix to subject, consequence of the hypothesis suggested earlier that adverbs take their sC8pe in the propositiona1 domain Which contains them.
In that Dutch, Dutch differs adverbial in modifiers intervening between the subject and the predicate of a small clause may not only be linked to the small clause subject, but also to the subject of the matrix clause. Ik maakte de tafel onbedoe1d kapot I made the table unintentionally broken b.
Ik vond Jan opzettelijk onaangenaam I found John deliberately unpleasant The representation of a , where the adverb is linked to a constituent outside the small clause domain, would be as in As discussed earlier, this position possibility is available in English only in the case of rightward movement. We assume that the analysis according to which the object originates in the position left adjacent to the where it may be moved and adjoined in an verb, from has been A'-position, satisfactorily motivated on the basis of the predictions with respect to differences between analysis is indeed correct, the Dutch structure and in direct it English.
This is a desirable on this basis, the parasitic gap phenomenon in Dutch is makes If also result, has all the the since the properties we expect, given the overall structure of the GB-theory. Chains and features In this section we shall discuss a particular kind of parasitic-gap construction which present version modification appears of that the to have some GB-framework. Let us first exemplify consequences We shall posed the the by for the propose the relevant consequences problematic a of this kind of construction. Jan heeft zich [na PRO verscheidene malen e John has himself after various times vergist te hebben] toch weer!
De sprinter heeft zich [zonder PRO e te bekommeren The sprinter has himself without om de afstand! In these sentences the matrix clause Subject, zich, PRO, and! The problem shows some resemblance to cases such as , where the variable t should be coindexed the subject, hence be A-bound. According to one proposal, the Binding in Theory the applies at LF after reconstruction: the antecedent is first moved back its by original position where the reflexive is bound antecedent in accordance with the Binding Theory for alternative version of the proposal is to let the to its anaphors.
An Binding Theory argue against apply via the trace. In their model, the Which Binding a they separate application of formS the input to Theory is supposed to apply at NP-structure. At that level, the representation of and would have the phrases himself and pictures of themselves in their base positions, so that no difficulties would arise with the Binding Theory for reflexive anaphors. It should be pointed out that this proposal meets with severe prOblems in the case of parasitic-gap constructions in general, if, as was argued above, the parasitic movement.
Therefore, at the level of gap does not NP-structure, gap is an empty category the status of which is result the from parasitic unclear, as the notion of variable does not seem to be of relevance in their model. A non-derivational in the approach to the interpretation of empty categories is also available in GB-theol'y, viz. Rizzi argues that instead of forming a chain in a derivational way, i. He formation. In S-structure refers to this as the representational way of chain principle, this way of forming chains might solve the problem of parasitic gaps, since antecedent and parasitic gap may constitute a chain representationally.
However, the chain algorithm must also be subject to certain restrictions. One of the restrictions that Rizzi proposes is that no intervening local binder may be skipped in the formation of a the chain. A further restriction derives from Q-criterion, which must now be formulated so as to apply to chains rather than to arguments directly, viz. Applying the chain algorithm constrained in the way described just now to the immediately observe that the manner. Therefore, the we this theory of the representational Chains is incapable of accounting for the thus other to formation of grammaticality of the sentences in Let us now introduce our own proposal with the help of a comparison of the examples in John was seen t b.
Who did John see t The trace in a is an NP-trace: the movement of John is by the lack of Case at the position t and forced the movement is possible because of the fact that no thematic role is assigned to of Gaps and Parasitic Gaps the surface position of John. The trace in b is a WH-trace. Movement of who is not strictly forced in any sense, since Case and a thematic role are assigned to the position of t. The notion that it the Case feature which licenses an expression may further clarification.
What we mean is that on the perhaps one is need hand each lexical NP must have a Case feature and on the other hand that each lexical element has referential potential, either inherently names and optionally pronouns or indirectly via binding optionally pronouns. We shall say therefore that anaphors Case and identifies the referent, which recalls the visibility requirement proposed the literature. The selection of the particular referent different matter of course, Which is determined by the name rather than by Case.
The main reason for us to tie the is in a itself notion of Gaps and Parasitic Gaps Case so strictly to the notion of referent lies in difference between instances of NP-movement and the well-known WH-movement: the latter is subject to a crossover constraint, unlike the former, as is shown in They seemed to ench other to be quite friendly] b. This essentially represents in what one might want to call a chain. However, the chain does not make it clear in what position the expression actually is. Assuming that an expression can be at only one place on a particular level, we should specify what the position of the expression is.
The position of a positively specified Q-feature is expression is present when functional the or position relational checked i. The position of the Case feature is the where the aspects are aSSignment position the expression resides when referential relations between in the structure are checked.
Before we consider of this proposal, let us demonstrate how the it of where elements consequences deals with the problematic examples in We shall assume that chain formation is representational, as proposed by that it is entirely skipped. In addition free to Rizzi lg83l, i. The situation Let us now examine how the claim that only the correct chains can be built is a consequence of the interpretation of the features mentioned above. We have seen that the chains in are correct. From it follows that build involve ,t chains of more than two members only if these we chains least one position which has only minus values.
For d. John appeared [! Who did you think [!
Gaps and Dummies (Amsterdam University Press - Amsterdam Archaeological Studies)
Who t appeared [t to be the winner]? A different instantiation of c seems marginally possible, viz. We shall not discuss this on quite type of Gaps and Parasitic Gaps construction here. Apart from the unificatory effect of the TR-condition explanation of the illformedness of , it appears longer need the notion of variable. The reason for this differential status of the two types landing site no considered Binding traces left behind by WH-movement are held subject to the requirement of th,. With respect to this latter requirement, it Should be how our proposal accounts for this.
Consider a case obvious of Strong Crossover, as in Since who is identical to i. Theory does not names impose element Given locality between gap and its antecedent in in the all as the position relevant respects it fact cannot that restrictions the case the on of the formulated slightly derives from the TR-condition [16J. Therefore, in its it the status achieves NP-structure what aim at.
Our proposal is superior, however, since it is non-derivational and can therefore take parasitic gaps into account as well. We have seen that the Gap Condition is able to provide an explanation for both normal and parasitic gaps. This rule is independently motivated. It was seen to be necessary to account for the apparent free word order in the transparency of Small Clauses Dutch and middle field Exceptional Case constructions.
Further motivation for this rule Heavy-NP-Shift in English leftward adjunct ion as the was structural and the Marking derived from mirror-image of c prepositions introducing infinitival complements occupy the COMP position. This assumption, which enables us to account for the contrast between parasitic gaps in finite and in infinitival clauses, is independently motivated as well. Then which First, we we shall is will discuss followed discussion of their arguments in favour of their approach. Given independent restrictions on the parasitic-gap construction in it is Dutch is extremely limited.
In their view, a parasitic gap shows up only sentences such as Welke boeken h'b j, [zonder -" t, lezen Which books have yoo without to read.!. Ik h'b deze boeken [zonder I have these books without to read pot away Cases like are argued to be derived in such a way that a can be seen as an instance of across-the-board ATB application wh-movement, and b as an instance application of NP-adjunction, which they of regard as the leftward equivalent of Right Node Raising, i.
Left Node Raising. I of across-the-board in which the inserted. In the NP is extracted from lower the two sentence is coordinated VPs simultaneously. It will be clear that they have to attribute to the preposition introducing the adjunct coordinator. In fact, they subordinators that can also phenomenon they refer to argue be as that analysed clause the these as status of prepositions coordinators, insubordination. The a are which crucial difference between our analysis and theirs is the status of the preposition intrOducing infinitival adjunct Clauses.
Both analyses depend on a general theory of gaps and parasitic gaps and assume leftward NP-adjunction. If our assumption that both the Gaps and Parasitic Gaps introductory prepositions appear in COMP is correct, everything follows from the theory of gaps without additional assumptions. If their claim that these prepositions are insubordinators is correct, they have to make additional assumptions these parasitic-gap constructions in are order to basically show that similar to across-the-board phenomena.
Moreover, in our account differences between Dutch and English in the range of possible parasitic-gap constructions follow other, independent differences between Dutch and English. In account the class of Dutch constructions corresponding parasitic-gap constructions divides into real to from their English parasitic-gap constructions as in , for the extremely limited distribution of which they have to provide an explanation as well, and ATE-constructions as in From this we would like to conclude that our analysis is to be preferred conceptually.
However, if it should turn out that there are serious counterarguments against our theory and that there striking similarities between infinitival adjuncts and the regular construction with across-the-board a gap are in constructions, their analysis might have to be preferred. One problem The second one is concerned with sentences like Our analysis forces us to assume that e1 is a parasitic gap whereas e2 is the real gap. Both predictions are wrong, falsifying their account. Dit is een boek waar ik e van denk dat Jan er naar verlangt th, Gaps and Parasitic Gaps However, the grammaticality of b is irrelevant analysis.
Since either gap in is accessible for no problem arises if a pronoun replaces the deeply most to our extraction, embedded gap. As far as the Gap Condition is concerned, a is predicted to be grammatical as well. With respect to the ungrammaticality of b we would like to claim that it results from a Strong Crossover violation. Even if er belongs to PP, which is not clear at all, a strong-crossover violation is predicted. It is well-known that strict c-command is of prepositional complements.
This is insufficient true for in cases anaphora, control, binding and, apparently, strong crossover, as Shown in Ik vertelde [aan Jan] een verhaal over zichzelf] I told to John a story about himself b. It follows from their analysis that parallelisms as required by the Coordinate Gaps and Parasitic Gaps Structure Constraint should be obeyed.
If there parallelism structures, requirements on dual gap are indeed such they may constitute an argument against our analysis. However, any instance of non-parallelism argument in principle constitutes against their proposal. We shall argue that arise. The Coordinate extraction from Structure one of the a strong such Constraint conjuncts. What have you walked and bought b. Hij heeft mij er [zonder echt [e naar] te verlangen] He has me there without really for to long l [e om] gevraagd for asked In their view these sentences are just as ungrammatical as the completely ungrammatical sentences in , which they present an argument against our analysis.
They reject a , a as judgement we do not share. However, if they want to reject a , they must also reject b , but in our opinion there is no contrast at between a and b. What is unfortunate b seems preferable. Similar cases of for them asymmetric is all that extraction resulting in grammatical sentences are provided in Wat heeft Jan er [zonder [e over] na te denken] What has John there without about to think tegen jou to you l [t over] gezegd about said b. Dit is de kast waar Jan deze boeken [zonder e This is the bookcase where John these books without te bekijken] t to inspect [!
The concept of sampling is often used in music, in particular in hip-hop and dance. By using music samples of artists before them, hip-hop and dance producers restructure existing elements and added new elements on top to create new productions. The use of existing elements is very common in new media art. New technologies, like the Internet and editing software, have made it possible for artists to use existing images, sounds and texts and to share data more easily.
The abundance of material that is now available can also be used more easily, through computer applications with simple functions, like copy-paste. The sharing of data has driven artists to open source software, partly to avoid problems with copyright. An important characteristic of open source is collaboration, and we see this prominently in new media art.
Artists make their work freely available, so other artists can easily build upon it and remix it to create new works. Our present cultural moment seems marked by the database. The database is the symbolic form that structures, or rather, destructures the data that it holds. The database is anything but a simple collection of items. Rather, the database is structured so that the production or consumption of its data is inherently non-linear, navigational, and counter-narrative.
The exhibition frames an argument that is bordered on one side by counter-narrative forms of data presentation and on the other, far side by remix culture. The works presented in this exhibition attempt to present an alternative reading of data appearance that brings about critical thinking of how data can otherwise be presented in an unexpected fashion. As Christiane Paul notes:. This mini exhibition seeks to start answering the question of how the database can manifest itself in media art aesthetics.
We have selected the following works. Manovich and Douglass took Time magazine covers, from to , and ordered these covers in a number of different ways to show patterns. He took all of the Time covers as a database and showed what one can do with these data. It shows certain tendencies in design and even content over time. By visualizing these already existing data and showing them in an appealing way, people can more easily look at these changes. It should be noted that ironically, the way they put the artworks up in this exhibition, is really not that different from traditional art exhibitions.
The artwork is in a frame; people are standing before it and looking at it. Manovich takes aesthetics quite literally by making it visually compelling as well. We want new media narratives, and we want those narratives to be different from the narratives we have seen or read before. We want them to be new media specific. How can our new abilities to store vast amounts of data, to automatically classify, index, link, search, and instantly retrieve it, lead to new kinds of narratives?
Kevin and Jennifer McCoy — Every shot, every episode It deconstructs the television program by sampling it digitally and putting it in a database, so that they can reconstruct the original work in new ways. Kevin and Jennifer McCoy order the different scenes according to themes and put these categories on a display, so you see the related scenes instead of following the narrative of the separate episodes.
By deconstructing the original narrative, they show the aesthetic foundation of the series. What Every Shot Every Episode creates, however is a record of the elemental aesthetics of familiar genres, the subtexts of stereotypes, and formulaic representation that the viewer otherwise would not necessarily perceive in this clarity. Watch a similar project by the McCoys, with Looney Tunes scenes.
Just like in dance music, where the remix culture is very prominent, some art works have been remixed very often. What we also see here is a form of open source sharing of data and creativity via the Internet. Other artists have used this particular artwork to create new works. One artiest does something similar with different images , another puts it into a blog form. The original artwork itself is interactive, you create your own narrative within the limits of this project. Lialina has a background in film, and you see this clearly in this early work of new media art.
It are all fragments of seemingly random dialogue, but altogether they tell the story of their meeting and the problems they have to reconnect. The girl in the story confesses that she has had an affair with the neighbor while the boy was out fighting for his country.
The boy also asks the girl to marry him. The work uses parts of a database in a different way to construct the narrative. This is still very much so a narrative, but not in the traditional form as with cinema. It uses hypertext to construct the story, and it does so in a non-linear way. Hypertext has made it possible to make an artwork and tell a flexible story, in a way that is specific to new media. This artwork uses the medium film and is made by the Slovenian artist Vuk Cosic , who is an original player in the history of new-media art.
In this work he changes clips from classical American films and televisionseries, for example Psycho , Deep Throat, and Star Trek. Cosic uses special software to transform an image of the original film into an image that shows ASCII-characters as pixels or dots. By replacing the pictorical values of the image by characters, and by playing these new images in a fast way the work of art becomes a new film.
Cosic studied Archaeology, and his ASCII-cinema illustrates a media-archaeological approach of the arts and shows his interest in outdated techniques. One of the pioneers was Kenneth Knowlton who reconstructed a photographic nude into typographical characters using a special camera that scanned the original onto magnetic tape. My reaction to this is to look in the past and continue the upgrade of some marginalized or forgotten technology.
Cosic choses to use a technique that is not new or innovative, but apparently is also not dead. He reforms, or remixes the existing artworks. These well-known images from the American pop-culture are displayed in a different way, not by re-organizing the data, but by changing the aesthetics of the data. The data of the photographic, colorful images are replaced by black-and green typographical data. The original image however is still left recognizable and untouched. This example of a remix of of classical icons of the American pop-culture in a very visual, graphical way is a good example of showing these icons in a different or unexpected way.
Cosic changes the aesthetics of pictures of well-known films, making use of a tool that is a well-known database, the alphabet. We see these characters normally strictly ordened from a-z but now they are functioning as a pixel of a bigger picture. DJ Spooky — Rebirth of a Nation The work called Rebirth of a Nation is a series of live performances whereby clips from the controversial film Birth of a Nation of D.
W Griffith from are remixed. The soundtrack as well is remixed and composed of several layers of sound. Birth of a Nation is a well-known movie, that is seen as a classical American film. However, the film was, and remains, highly controversial due to its portrayal of African American men played by white actors in blackface as unintelligent and sexually aggressive towards white women, and the portrayal of the Ku Klux Klan whose original founding is dramatized as a heroic force.
There were widespread protests against The Birth of a Nation , and it was banned in several cities. The outcry of racism was so great that D. Griffith was inspired to produce Intolerance the following year. Miller used images from this original work and made a remix by restructuring them. The story, based on a novel, was a linear narrative, up until DJ Spooky cut it into pieces.
So, different from Cosic, he is not changing the aesthetics of the image so much, but he is changing the order of the sequences, frames, shots. As you can notice the sound that DJ Spooky uses for his performances is very different and probably has it roots in Afro-American music , from the original soundtrack of Birth of a Nation. By remixing the film along the lines of dj culture, I hoped to create a counter-narrative, one where the story implodes on itself, one where new stories arise out the ashes of that explosion. Miller builds upon the work of a pioneer filmmaker, an critically reflects on it.
By deconstruction the Birth of a Nation the series of images does not have a beginning or end; in fact, it does not have any development, thematically, formally, or otherwise that would organize their elements into a sequence. This work of art is questioning the structure of and playing with the idea of a narrative. In the reading of Alice in Wonderland it treats the book — itself a data container — as a database and arranges it in its smallest units, words, and lines that can be filtered according to various principles. Paul p. The text appears as a concentric spiral on the screen, with each of its lines drawn in a tiny, illegible font size around the outside.
In a second spiral, each word is represented in a more readable size, and a pool of words appearing in the middle of the spirals forms the main organizing structure. If users select words, thin lines appear and connect the word to its positions in the text. What the project illuminates are structural patterns and symmetries that presumably are not very obvious during the reading and writing process. This example of TextArc artwork also show a remix of an older, really well-known artwork, in this case Alice in Wonderland.
- United Nations Disarmament Yearbook 2004 (United Nations Disarmament Yearbook).
- Managerial Uses of Accounting Information.
- Being Māori Chinese: Mixed Identities?
- Cell Mechanics.
Almost everyone knows this story. However, this project succeeds in showing us a totally different en new way of this storytelling. It is changing a classical form into a visual and graphical form of narrative. Thus, in this form of remixing, is also a deconstruction of the original work at state , whereby the different parts, in this case words, are structured in a different way, in a specific relational order.
- Brothers of the Head;
- Items where Division is "Media, Communications and Cultural Studies"?
- Cultural studies?
- Media Archaeology and Intermedial Performance!
- Amsterdam University Press.
- Group Dynamics in Exercise and Sport Psychology.
Mark Napiers — Schredder 1. It chops up text, images and source code and forms abstract compositions with it. It drags the code of the webpage through Perlscript, which deconstructs and rearranges the code and then sends it to the web browser. The Perlscript is written so that the results visually resemble one another, which creates an algorithm. It asks the user to submit an Url which is to be shredded. The user can submit the same Url many times and get various results with the same website. Sometimes you can still somewhat recognize the old design, but the shredded visual aesthetics resemble abstract modernist, surrealist paintings.
Napiers himself has a background as a painter, therefore there is also an emphasis on the aesthetically pleasing factor of the outcome. The artist describes his artworks as an interface, the user is part of the design. By interaction, the visitors form the work. Napiers wants to draw the viewers attention to the fundamental technological characteristics of the Internet. In this case the code that is usually hidden, the background of the website is partially pushed to the foreground making it visible and the user aware of it.
Schredder provides the audience or user of a webpage with a whole new experience derived from the old form. It is a remix of the website. The old website is the database from which the new is constructed, presenting it in an unexpected way. In a way it is the re-use of a website as a non-physical artefact. Radical Software Group — Carnivore It allowed agents to read the e-mails and chats of ordinary citizens and collects their personal online data.
RSG was founded by Alex Galloway. The project uses an open source tool with the name packet sniffer, it eavesdrops on the network it is installed in. It basically does the same as the original Carnivore, but while the FBI used their system to catch criminals, RSG used the data to create artistic interfaces using it as an instrument. The project thus created a database for other artists to use for their projects.
Each circle represents an active user, the color of the circle indicates a certain activity. For example, green represents an AOL user, dark blue means the user is surfing. Another example is Guernica , the artists behind it, the group Entropy8Zuper! There are aeroplanes circling around it that represent fragments of e-mails. Other types of data are visualized as rockets, building etc. These artists also have a political agenda and want to emphasize the political implications of netspying.
They believe that information equal propaganda. They want to expose the true content of the bits that stream through your computer. It is an installation, which controls a fleet of toy police cars in response to keywords derived from the database that can be linked to terrorism. So ironically, the same data that is being spied on by the authorities is the data that controls the police cars, turning the police in a puppet of their own surveillance system.
Carnivore is a huge artistic database it provides a list of unordered items, it is a collection of data. Artist can use this data to create different trajectories. Christiane Paul described the project as perfectly displaying the tensions between the linear and hierarchical structure of databases and on the other end the seemingly infinite possibilities of what you can do with the information contained inside those structures. Carnivore offers so many different ways to visualize the data, which often seems detached from the original data form like in Police State or Guernica. But also because the project has an open source setup it does the complete opposite as to what the FBI project does.
Raqs Media Collective — Opus It is an online platform for sharing creative work. Media artist can leave their art there so it can become part of a greater artwork. Artists and writers are encouraged to upload their original source files to the system. Others can remix the found sources or change them and upload them again into the OPUS system. Every upload is labelled in the online database system with tags and keywords. A lot of it is text but there are also images.
OPUS uses an algorithm to compare keywords to each other and uses the result of this to further position the relationships between the icons in the space of the visualization. If you mouse-over a certain icon in the visualization you will see that the related Projects are highlighted. They creators and users use the comparison with genealogy, the source files are parents, and everything that is derived from them is their child.
The newly created works are called Rescensions and they describe it as not a legal or illegal copy, nor a better or worse version, just like a child is none of the above in relation to its parents. The idea is based on open source software and everyone has access to different source codes.
Transfer is the practice of using existing elements and adding or changing aspects. Wolfgang however thinks that the future lies in permanent transfer. In this light Opus is a very futuristic project, even for back in Individual frames of a film sequence are made into a spatial object that follows the movement of the camera with which the footage was filmed. In a film, time is translated to individual frames that together form the work of art to look at. Space is not literally present, since a film is two dimensional. I have to note, however, that this clip is made before they used 3D printers to actually make physical objects.
This clip is made when these works of art were only to be seen in a virtual reality world of a city. So, how does this work of art relate to the literature and how does this work of art refer to the curatorial statement? The Invisible Shapes of Things Past project already in the title refers to the repurposing of objects from the past to create shapes that have been invisible; using the same data as the original object. Or, put simply, if the collection of single frames is the data and formerly it was the movie or film that made these frames visually accessible, then the art com group has changed the in which this data is used to create a visualization.
http://www.acibadembilgisayarservisitamiri.com/includes/9/arama-ses-kaydedici.php Here, we can refer to Lev Manovich who probably will regard the collection of frames as the database that consists of all this passive data. And it is the so-called algorithm that orders and structures that data into at one time in history a film, and now into a three-dimensional object.
According to Manovich it is the very logic of the computer, the logic of the digital, to have the ability to produce endless variations of elements and to act as a filtering system. So, again, if the frames are the elements, then this particular presentation by the invisible shapes of things past project is the filter. Any visual, digital image—from print to video—has ultimately been produced by instructions and the software that was used to create or manipulate it.
Ben Rubin and Mark Hansen — Moveable type The algorithms are designed to select quotes based on certain rules. One feature is to let all the fluorescent screens display letters to the editor accompanied by typewriter sounds. For Moveable Type the idea is to view the news as seen by the New York Times in an exploding charged environment. To take bits of news and display them all together, ripped out of their original context and giving them a new context. This idea strongly relates to what we know as hypertext theory, or at least the entering of hypertext into literary theory.
As Peter Krapp, puts it: hypertext draws on processes of subverting, inverting, and exploding the apparent linearity of the page.
See how Krapp speaks also, like Rubin and Hansen, of exploding the linearity of the page, prompting subversion, thus creating new context. Rubin and Hansen try to give their content a new context, thereby transforming the passive database into a big living organism. It behaves very randomly and every day it has its busy moments and its quiet moments.
Its behavior is related to the behavior of the people and the flow of information in the physical and information spaces of the leading newspaper in the US. In short, if the narrative is characterized by linearity, then the database is characterized by total chaos.
And it is up to the user or creator of, in this case, the work of art to use the passive data from the database to tell a story. They take from various sources of the new york times snippets of information, and present them in a radically different way, to tell the story of newsmaking or the production of the newspaper. Interestingly enough, it is the exact same data as has, will, or would have been in the new york times, but when presented differently it tells a different story. Let us now briefly look at an interesting piece of art that makes the making of a narrative very literal.
Epicpedia — Annemieke van der Hoek In relation to what we ended with just then database and narrative , we must take a look at the Epicpedia. So this work of art literally makes a narrative of a collection of archival data that is the Wikipedia edit history. They are everywhere: Ipads, Ipods, mobile phones, wireless communication in various sizes and shapes. The Internet is heavily involved in our everyday life, and Nicholas Carr says it is shaping every single of our thought no matter where we go.
When talking about how he lost the ability to focus on one thing such as reading a book from cover to cover, Carr explains how he thinks that the human brain has the ability to regress with the intellectual technologies it is using. The Internet and its technologies as tools we are using to think with, to find, store, organize, analyze and share information and ideas with are, according to him, all about distractions.
Carr states that we are in a perpetual state of distraction. No matter how many gains the Internet has to offer, be it new strengths in visual-spatial intelligence, information gathering, filtering, patterns of recognition, avenues of expression and collaboration, it weakens mindful knowledge acquisition, inductive analysis, critical thinking, imagination and reflection and our working memory is in a perpetual state of cognitive overload.
Now, is Carr holding on to old patterns of knowledge or are we seriously done with thinking deeply? Disengage from the fear of technology, engage living forms through technicity, transform life, choose life. Living, Semi-living, bio-creations that tactically aim to shape life. I had just committed my first ever Facebook grand theft, and for a whole six minutes I felt deviant, immoral and just plain bad.
I even contemplated to remove the selected picture, but that would suggest waiting yet another 48 hours to have an eDarling profile picture approved. With no friends in common, residence across the Atlantic and most importantly access to an abundance of profile pictures for me roam through, she was ideal. Eventually picture was uploaded and the profile deemed complete. Fair enough, I might be in the process of conducting research as well as personally suffering an overbearing amount of moral values, but the fact is that downloading pictures off of strangers on Facebook or other social networking sites has naturally evolved into common conduct.
How you chose to present yourself naturally differs, but in most cases we chose to reflect our most appreciated qualities, as appreciated by ourselves or others. The two men presented their project at the art and digital culture festival Transmediale in Berlin this year. They designed software that allowed them to steal the images from Facebook to then be further filtered through face-recognition software, which resulted in a collection of approximately , profiles categorized based on facial expressions.
As you may expect these men were showered in law suits coming from Facebook representatives, yet they also received a great deal of positive recognition and encouragement from fellow Facebook critics. Cirio and Ludovicos intentions with this project was to illustrate how users on Facebook are stripped off of user-control and fall in danger of fraud and identity theft, they further explain the project on their website face-to-facebook. Even though my situation differs, I intend to eventually give the girl her picture back by cancelling the account, but I have probably spread her face even further than she would ever guess.
I am imagining the many men whom have by now the picture has been up for 3 days saved the picture onto their own desktops. Ludovico and Cirio raised an important question of user safety and integrity, it is a highly serious concern as it is difficult to balance active networking and full-on privacy, and Facebook for instance like many other sites utilizes our curiosity and ignorance as users of their platform. So where does this leave the reliability of online dating sites and their members?
Following the successful upload of my image I received three contact requests I was desired! From the 6 th of April to the 12 th of April different projects will present their work and exchange ideas on subjects such as community improvement, hardware recycling and open source applications amongst others.
It held that the area from that point on was under military control in order to restore peace and tranquility. When working with the cartographers, the latter became quite clear as the militias reacted quite aggressively when they noticed they were being filmed. And the fact that they were wearing rifles and guns did not make it any better. The idea of the workshop was to map out different viewpoints, different ideas in order to offer resistance to the oppression and bring to light themes such as poverty, displacement and economy.
What I found especially interesting is the way this meeting was organized; even though there were three leading figures in the group, all opinions and suggestion were carefully taken into account. The final idea of how to continue the work resulted out of a long discussion and referendum where many pros and cons passed the table. Even when things were said that were not always relevant or useful, it most of the time led other people to come up with an appropriated idea.
It was chaotic, slightly unstructured, but effective. This, I think was also characteristic for the whole organization of LabSurLab, where the organization seemed to be fluid, with no rigid planing, but still a clear organization that often went from mouth to mouth rather than a set schedule. Bernhard Rieder , Assistant Professor of New Media at the University of Amsterdam and Assistant Professor at the Hypermedia department at Paris VIII University, compelled the audience to think about what it means for the contemporary book to be meshed in digital structures from an information scientist meets media studies point of view.
A refreshing talk not about the death of books but more about the new relationships and representations that digitization awards. With the rise of online and digital book culture coming face-to-face with data culture, it becomes worthy to look at e-books and digital publishing structurally. The power of digitization brings on the power of the database.
Books are being scaled and various statistical properties of them can be analyzed for other purposes. We see this reflected in online book sites where a wealth of ratings, reviews and lists of most popular, best and worst books permeate. So thanks to the database you know just how many words per ounce are contained in a book and can decide which printed book is right for you. As Bernhard explains, historically institutions ranging from family, school and library to bookstores, market forces and affordances have always contributed to structuring the universe of books, shaping what we read and how we read it.